Text to Speech vs Speech to Text: What is the Difference?

Learn all about the differences between text to speech and speech to text technology.

Picture this: You're driving to work, and your smartphone reads out your unread emails using text-to-speech software (TTS). Better yet, you send off your responses without even needing to touch your phone or look away from the road—all thanks to Speech to Text (STT) software. 

These technologies aren't just fun, futuristic concepts. They're rapidly becoming integral parts of our daily lives, simplifying daily tasks and enhancing accessibility. 

Let’s dive into the world of artificial intelligence-powered TTS and STT, exploring what they are, their differences, how they work, what to look for in TTS and STT providers, and the various ways they're being applied across industries. 

The Differences Between TTS and Text From Speech

There are several key differences between TTS and text-from-speech technology. These are as follows.


TTS (TTS) converts written text into spoken words, while Speech to Text (STT) does the opposite, transcribing spoken words into text. TTS is used to make written content audible, acting as a voice assistant for those with visual impairments or learning disabilities. STT, on the other hand, captures spoken language and turns it into a written transcript, beneficial for dictation and voice commands.

Usage Context

TTS is commonly integrated into e-readers, public announcement systems, and virtual assistants to provide auditory output. STT finds its use in transcription services, voice-controlled applications, and real-time captioning for the hearing impaired. The usage context for TTS is primarily output-driven, focusing on delivering information audibly. In contrast, STT is input-centric, focusing on capturing and processing spoken language.

Technological Approach

TTS technology involves text analysis, language processing, and speech synthesis. It must accurately convey the nuances of spoken language, including intonation and rhythm. STT requires advanced voice recognition capabilities to accurately transcribe different accents, dialects, and speech patterns, often in real-time.

What is TTS (TTS)?

TTS (TTS) is a technology that converts written text into spoken words. At its core, TTS enables computers to read aloud, transforming any text into a synthetic voice. This technology finds extensive use in applications ranging from virtual assistants to accessibility tools for those with reading difficulties.

A notable example of advanced TTS technology is ElevenLabs' TTS capabilities. ElevenLabs' TTS stands out for its ability to produce exceptionally natural and human-like voice outputs. It achieves this by leveraging sophisticated AI algorithms that not only mimic the sound of human speech but also understand and reproduce the nuances and inflections that characterize natural speech patterns. 

This level of realism makes ElevenLabs' TTS ideal for creating engaging audio content for various media, enhancing user interfaces with voice feedback, and offering an accessible reading alternative for visually impaired users.

What is Text from Speech (Speech to Text, STT)?

Text from Speech, also known as Speech to Text (STT), is the process of converting spoken language into written text. This speech recognition technology is pivotal in creating transcriptions from audio recordings, enabling voice commands, and facilitating real-time captioning for accessibility.

Several major providers have made significant advancements in STT technology. For instance, Otter.ai revolutionizes automated transcription with its AI-powered tool, efficiently converting audio and video into text. It offers features like AI-powered summaries, searchable transcripts, and a user-friendly interface, making it ideal for capturing meetings, lectures, and interviews in written form.

Microsoft Azure Speech to Text, another leading provider, excels in high-quality transcriptions, supporting more than 100 languages. Its customizable models and flexible deployment options cater to a wide range of professional needs, from creating searchable databases of audio files to enhancing app interactions with voice recognition.

Apple's Siri integrates STT into its ecosystem, offering versatile speech-to-text functionality across various devices. Siri's voice-to-text feature is particularly useful for hands-free operations, such as sending messages or composing emails, making everyday tasks more efficient for Apple users.

How Does TTS Work?

TTS (TTS) technology transforms written text into audible speech, a process that involves several intricate steps.

Initially, the TTS system dissects the text, segmenting it into phonemes - these are the smallest sound units in any language. This segmentation is vital for the system's ability to accurately pronounce various words.

Following this phonemic segmentation, the system proceeds to convert these sounds into digital speech. Here, artificial intelligence (AI) plays a crucial role. Leveraging AI algorithms trained on extensive spoken language datasets, the system can produce speech that echoes human-like tones and rhythms. This generated speech is then aligned with the identified phonemes, culminating in a natural-sounding output.

Thanks to advancements in AI and machine learning, modern TTS technologies have evolved remarkably. They are now capable of understanding contextual nuances, accommodating multiple languages, and somewhat emulating emotional inflections. These enhancements have significantly humanized the speech output, leading to more natural and engaging interactions with digital devices.

What Are the Best TTS Providers?

The best TTS software solutions are ElevenLabs, Murf, and PlayHT. Here’s a brief rundown of their main features, pros, cons, and rating out of 5. 

Tool Name

Key Features





ElevenLabs TTS

HD Audio, 29 Languages, Customizable Emotion

Perfect audio, 1000s of Voices, Easy customization

Complex for basic tasks

Free; $1-$330/mo; Enterprise: Contact


Murf AI

Authentic Voice Reproduction, Customization, 20 Languages

Human-like voices, Customization

Learning curve

Free; $19-$75/mo; Enterprise: Contact



Authentic Voices, Fast Conversion, Diverse Styles

Over 140 languages, Fast processing

Limited styles in some languages

Free; $31.20-$79.20/mo; Enterprise: Contact


How Does Speech-to-Text Work?

Speech-to-Text (STT) technology transforms spoken language into written text through a complex, multi-step process.

Firstly, it starts with capturing spoken words, typically through a microphone. This audio input is then converted into a digital format that the system can process. The core of STT lies in its ability to analyze this digital audio. It uses sophisticated algorithms to break down the speech into smaller, recognizable segments.

These segments are phonemes, the smallest units of sound in speech. The STT system matches these phonemes against a pre-defined linguistic model to identify words and phrases. This step is crucial for understanding different accents, dialects, and variations in speech.

Next, the system applies natural language processing (NLP) techniques. NLP helps in understanding the context and syntax of the spoken language, enabling more accurate transcription. It also allows the system to handle complex sentence structures and industry-specific jargon.

Advanced STT systems employ machine learning and deep learning algorithms, which improve with more data and usage. These technologies enable the system to learn from new speech patterns, accents, and even languages over time, enhancing its accuracy and efficiency.

In summary, STT technology involves audio capture, phonemic analysis, linguistic modeling, and NLP, all underpinned by machine learning, to effectively convert speech into text.

What Are the Best Speech-to-Text Providers?

The best speech-to-text providers are Otter, Microsoft Azure, and Siri. Here’s a brief rundown of their main features, pros, cons, and rating out of 5. 

Tool Name


What's Missing?



Automated Speech to Text, AI-Powered Summaries, Cost-Effective, Time Efficient, Searchable Transcripts, 300 Free Minutes Monthly, Interactive Transcripts, User-Friendly Interface

Limited Free Tier, Advanced Customization, Integration with External Apps


Microsoft Azure

High-Quality Transcription, Customizable Models, Flexible Deployment, Production-Ready, Diverse Source Compatibility, Custom Speech Models, Deployment Flexibility, Comprehensive Privacy and Security

Real-Time Translation, Limited Voice Recognition Features



Multi-Device Compatibility, Hands-Free Text Dictation, Voice Command Integration, Text Editing via Dictation, Extensive App Support, Easy Activation

No Voice Command for Deletion, Limited Voice Command Customization, Dependence on Internet Connection


TTS and STT: Accuracy and Challenges

TTS and Speech to Text technologies strive for human-like precision. Their accuracy is constantly improving—but that’s not to say it’s perfect. Here’s what you can expect in terms of accuracy and challenges from both these technologies.

TTS (TTS) Accuracy and Challenges

AI voice TTS technology has significantly evolved, yet it faces challenges. The foremost is achieving natural-sounding human voices. While modern TTS systems can produce clear and understandable audio output, infusing human-like inflections and emotions remains a hurdle. Additionally, TTS struggles with context interpretation, sometimes mispronouncing words based on their context. Another challenge is the customization of voices to suit diverse needs, such as different accents and speech patterns, which is essential for global accessibility.

Text from Speech/Speech to Text (STT) Accuracy and Challenges

STT technology has made strides in accuracy, particularly with the advent of deep learning. However, it encounters difficulties in noisy environments where background sounds can interfere with voice recognition. Accurately capturing and transcribing diverse accents and dialects also poses a significant challenge. Furthermore, STT systems often struggle with homophones (words that sound the same but have different meanings) and understanding complex syntax or slang, impacting their overall effectiveness in real-world applications.

Applications in Various Industries

TTS and Speech to Text technologies have found innovative use cases across a wide variety of industries, transforming how we interact with information and enhancing accessibility.

TTS Applications in Industries

TTS technology finds its application in various sectors. In education, it assists in creating accessible learning materials for students with reading difficulties or visual impairments. For example, like tuning textbooks into audiobooks.

In the automotive industry, TTS powers voice responses in navigation systems. The customer service sector utilizes TTS for automated responses in call centers, enhancing efficiency. Additionally, TTS is instrumental in the entertainment industry, notably in gaming and virtual assistants, where it provides interactive user experiences.

STT Applications in Industries

STT technology has diverse applications across multiple industries. In healthcare, it aids in transcribing doctor-patient conversations and dictating clinical documentation, thereby improving efficiency. In the legal field, STT is used for transcribing court proceedings and legal documentation. The technology also plays a pivotal role in media, aiding in real-time captioning of broadcasts for the hearing impaired. In the corporate world, STT facilitates efficient meeting transcriptions, enhancing record-keeping and accessibility of information.

Final Thoughts

TTS (TTS) and Speech to Text (STT) technologies, while seemingly similar, serve distinct functions. TTS transforms written text into spoken words, bringing written content to life with human-like voices. In contrast, STT does the opposite, converting spoken words into written text, capturing the nuances of spoken language in a textual format. 

Both technologies leverage advanced AI, but they cater to different needs: TTS for auditory consumption of written material, and STT for creating written records of spoken content.

For those interested in experiencing state-of-the-art TTS technology, check out ElevenLabs’ platform. You won’t be disappointed. 

Explore more


Create with the highest quality AI Audio

Get started free

Already have an account? Log in